The Differences Between 3-Phase And Single Phase Circuits | AllRound
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Understanding The Differences Between 3-Phase and Single Phase Circuits

3-phase and single phase circuits

05 May Understanding The Differences Between 3-Phase and Single Phase Circuits

Electricity may either be connected by 230 or 240 volts (these are called single phase circuits that are installed in most residential applications), or 400 & 415 Volts (3-phase). The latter are typically best-suited to provide power to heavy-duty appliances and equipment and in industrial settings as well as larger commercial applications.

Some people have electric kilns installed in their homes or garages because they indulge in making pottery or ceramics products. Certain homes have very elaborate and large, ducted air-conditioning systems. In all these situations, a 3-phase circuit would be required to support this heavy power usage.

The type of circuit used is dependent in the equipment or appliances installed on your property. It is important that you check the power & voltage requirements of the installations properly, before deciding what type of circuits you need. In most instances, even massive ovens and high energy-consuming heaters are typically singe-phase.

The Electrical Phases

  • A single phase circuit is directed into the home with 2 wires – neutral and active. The former is connected to earth (earth stake, water pipe etc) at the point where it enters the switchboard.
  • A 3-phase circuit has 4 wires, three of these are the phases/actives and one is neutral. The latter is the one that’s earthed at the main switchboard.

When Is 3-Phase Required?

  • Large electric motors (typically over 2 kw) require 3-phase power. This circuit is used for large workshop equipment as well.
  • Many larger residential settings may sometimes have a 3-phase installation, as it distributes the overall load in a manner that the current in every phase is lower. For instance, if the overall electrical load is 24kw (which is quite high for residential applications). At a standard, single-phase power supply of 240V, the max current would be only 100 amps.

This current in amps has to be multiplied by the voltage to give you the power in watts. If a 3-phase supply is available, the total voltage of 24,000 watts will be divided by 3; this means 8000 watts will be used in each phase. This means the current in each phase is lower than 1/3rd of what it generally is in a single phase power supply (about 30 amps in each phase instead of 100).

The aspect to keep in view here is that if you have a 3-phase electrical connection, you will end up paying higher connection fees for it. In addition, you would have to pay fixed annual charges for 3-phase as well, so you shouldn’t be considering it for your new home unless it’s really needed.

Rural Connections & SWER

Depending on the locality you live in, your property may also be connected to a SWER electrical line and many country areas have them. The SWER (single wire, earth return) delivers single-phase power. It is a very economical way of power distribution since it requires only a single transmission or active line. The earth is used as the return conductor and there is no neutral line.

In case you need to use any 3-phase motors in these settings, you would have to get a single-phase to 3-phase converter installed. Choosing the right phase is crucial to the optimal working of your equipment and for the safety of your property as well.

You would have to consult skilled and experienced professionals to help you identify whether you need a single-phase or 3-phase circuit for your specific application. You can consult with our experts and they will provide you the best advice and quotes for all your electrical needs. You can call us at 1300 169 263 or write to us at this email address.

Thanks for reading,
Allround Electrical
1300 169 263

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